Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 从“开发”到“运营”，新时代城市建设者的角色之变.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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《美国谍梦》(The Americans)，FX，1月28日播出。这部剧精彩地将冷战间谍惊悚剧与家庭剧融为一体，第三季一开始，潜伏在华盛顿的克格勃小队感受到了苏联的阿富汗战争的压力。弗兰克·兰格拉(Frank Langella)加入演员阵容，饰演剧中夫妻间谍的新联系人，取代了玛戈·马丁代尔(Margo Martindale)饰演的克劳迪娅(Claudia)。顺便说一句，八天后NBC即将首播的《忠诚》(Allegiance)是讲述潜伏在美国的俄罗斯间谍的。哈。
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The study is available online.