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新华社:住房和城乡建设部对部分房价、地价波动幅度较大的城市进行预警提示

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 陶瓷产品产销分离利大于弊 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

电商、服务与渠道 开辟铝门窗行业新局面

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

But 'averages' are old data, not future facts. Happy talk won't restart a bull. And more warnings won't puncture an old bubble. Cycles have lives of their own, move up and down when they damn well feel like it. That's nature.
On Turkey, which recently shot down a Russian warplane, Putin said he sees no possibility of overcoming the strained ties with the current Turkish leadership. He said he was shocked to see that Turkey hadn't tried to explain its action but turned to help from NATO instead.
201001/93691.shtml重点单词
据Mic上周报道,脸书表情包分享群组已经成为一个新兴的大学传统,全国各地的学生们用截图和配字互开玩笑,与对手学校互怼。
After IMD in second place, Duke Corporate Education completes the custom programme podium. It is the third year in a row that the US school is in third place, having previously topped this ranking for a record 12 consecutive years to 2014.
"If it (transforming the economic development mode) only results in empty talk instead of being implemented, then economic development cannot be promoted in a sound and rapid way, and may even not be sustained." LI YIZHONG, member of the CPPCC National Committee and former minister of industry and information technology
“The Fed was much more aggressive than expected,” Mr Koepke says. “Taking markets by surprise was clearly not the way to go.” (This was before the Fed began making regular public statements after its monetary policy meetings.)

Yes, even if real GDP growth does not. Speculation over the true GDP growth rate in China, as opposed to the official one, has spawned a cottage industry of specialist economists. The official figures are deceptively stable and serene thanks to suspected “smoothing” by the Chinese authorities, as they bend the figures to fit growth targets. So even if growth does stumble in 2018, the official growth rate is almost certain to come in above the preordained 6.5 per cent.
Whatever one's view, two further points for and against Russia's global standing are undeniable:
《蜘蛛侠:英雄归来》
We will maintain ethical conduct and moral integrity at all times.
Lisa Stone

Footnotes

  • 顺应时代发展,门企不被时代落下的必走之路
  • 珍贵的照片显示了古老的性玩具曾经属于中国皇室和贵族。

[di'klain]
而是穆斯克在会上表示,预计特斯拉到2015年底将实现10万台的年产量。
As well as diversity, Mr Cook has championed sustainability and supply-chain transparency, including a commitment to reducing Apple’s use of conflict minerals. While hyper-efficient under Mr Cook’s management before he became chief executive, Apple’s supply chain has not always been something to boast about, with recurring complaints about working conditions.
蕾哈娜在榜单上排名第二,获得亚军,《男人装》表示:在这12个月以来,她真是无处不在,但是我们依然没有对她审美疲劳。
单词administration 联想记忆:
It organized two large-scale inspections last year, involving more than 5,300 batches of imported consumer goods, such as air purifiers, car brake blocks, household electrical appliances and clothes, with more than 1,500 found to be substandard, Han said.

2013年陶瓷卫浴行业面临挑战

References

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